Composting is a biological process that occurs in the presence of oxygen and transforms organic waste -by the action of microorganisms- into a matter similar to soil, which is called compost. Compost is a visually earth-like natural product, brown to black in color, rich in plant nutrients and that enhances the structure and natural characteristics of the soil.

Composting is an aerobic system for the treatment of biodegradable organic waste, which decomposes under controlled conditions by the action of microorganisms. This process occurs in the presence of humidity and generates high temperatures that allow the mixture to be sanitized, producing carbon dioxide, water and a stabilized organic matter known as compost.

The conditions that favor the growth of aerobic microorganisms are presence of oxygen, adequate temperature, humidity and balanced nutrition. Other factors that can influence its development are pH, easily soluble energy sources, such as simple sugars, and the contact surface or particle size.

To carry out medium and large-scale composting, a fraction of brown organic waste (lignocellulosic material) is required to equal the green portion by weight and thus provide the carbon fraction. Therefore, the site where this type of technology is developed will require a daily stock of lignocellulosic material.

PROJECTS-COMMUNES

Rapa Nui

Benefited entity: Illustrious Municipality of Rapa Nui


Región: Valparaíso


Population: 7.750 inhabitants


Number of homes: 3.136


Area (km2): 163.6


Tons of RSD generated annually: 2,987.5


Disposal Site: Vai a Ori Landfill


Municipal Environmental Certification: –

Currently, in Rapa Nui there is a minimum separation of organic waste, and those treated are transported and disposed of in the Vai a Ori Municipal Landfill, which is situated 8 kilometers away from the center of the commune.

Reciclo Orgánicos Program is providing technical support to the Municipality to obtain the permits and financing for the construction of a Composting Plant on the site where the municipal landfill is currently located.

During the period 2022-2040, this composting plant expects to receive and treat, on average, 776 tons per year of organic matter from fruit and vegetable waste from the commune.

This Project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2,923 (tons CO2 eq), during the period 2022-2040.

In the medium term, the commune could explore the possibility of expanding the plant´s capacity in order to treat a greater percentage of the organic waste generated by its inhabitants.

Talca

Benefited entity: Illustrious Municipality of Talca


Region: Maule


Population: 220.357 inhabitants


Number of homes: 80.810


Area (km2): 232


Tons of RSD generated annually: 101.614,3


Disposal Site: El Retamo Landfill


Municipal Environmental Certification: Excellence

Currently, the commune disposes of its municipal waste in El Retamo Landfill, which is a privately managed final disposal site, situated 22 kilometers away from the center of Talca.

The Municipality of Talca, with the assistance of Reciclo Orgánicos Program, is advancing in the materialization of a project which aims to build a Composting Plant, with Gore-Tex technology, in the same site where El Retamo Landfill operates. Its objective is to considerably reduce the volume of organic waste from the Macroferia of Talca, the main regional center for the supply of fruits and vegetables, which currently sends its waste for final disposal of to El Retamo Landfill.

The Municipality of Talca, with the assistance of Reciclo Orgánicos Program, is advancing in the materialization of a project which aims to build a Composting Plant, with Gore-Tex technology, in the same site where El Retamo Landfill operates. Its objective is to considerably reduce the volume of organic waste from the Macroferia of Talca, the main regional center for the supply of fruits and vegetables, which currently sends its waste for final disposal of to El Retamo Landfill.

This composting plant expects to receive and treat about 7,380 tons per year of organic material of the remains of fruits and vegetables from Macroferia of Talca.

During the period 2021-2040, this project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 85,789 (tons CO2 eq).

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Santa Juana

Benefited entity: Illustrious Municipality of Santa Juana


Region: Biobío


Population: 13.749 inhabitants


Number of homes:  6.219


Area (km2):  731,2


Tons of RSD generated annually:  3.679,2


Disposal Site: CEMARC Landfill


Municipal Environmental Certification: –

Santa Juana is the first commune in the country in which there is differentiated collection of waste at the household level (in the entire urban area of ​​the commune and also in a part of the rural areas). As of March 2019, the inhabitants of Santa Juana separate their organic waste at the source. Disposing of their recoverable waste in an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plant that treat organic waste in an industrial way.

During the first year of operation, it was possible to appreciate the decrease in household solid waste in the sanitary landfill, avoiding the disposal of 313.2 tons of waste, corresponding to 93.37 tons of inorganic waste and 219.84 tons of household organic waste.

The main components of the facility´s infrastructure, were financed with funds from the Undersecretary of Regional Development (SUBDERE, for its Spanish acronym), Reciclo Orgánicos and had the support of the Regional Government (GORE, for its Spanish acronym) of Biobío and its advisers.

It is expected that during the period 2019-2040, this composting plant will receive and treat an average of 1,159 tons per year of organic material from fruit and vegetable remains. Also, this project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 14,022 (tons CO2 – eq), during the period 2019-2040.

Talcahuano

Benefited entity: Illustrious Municipality of Talcahuano


Region: Biobío


Population:  151.749 inhabitants


Number of homes:  50.599


Area (km2):  92,3


Tons of RSD generated annually:  62.168,5


Disposal Site: Copiulemu Landfill


Municipal Environmental Certification: Excellence

Currently, the commune disposes of a large part of its municipal waste in the Copiulemu Sanitary Landfill, a privately owned final disposal site, situated in the commune of Florida, 40 kilometers away from the center of Talcahuano.

The Caralmapu municipal composting plant has been operating since 2016, and its main input is organic waste from the rotating street markets managed by the Environment Department. In Caralmapu are treated around 3 tons of organic waste weekly.

In 2018, the Municipality signed a letter of intent with the Chile-Canada Reciclo Orgánicos Cooperation Program, in which technical assistance and investment contributions were established to the municipality, by the means of short-term actions that facilitate the adoption of best practices for the management of organic waste. Within this commitment, Reciclo Orgánicos Program provided to the municipality both, a truck for the selective collection and transport of organic waste and a branch chipper.

It is expected that during the period 2019-2040, this composting plant will receive and treat an average of 3,853 tons per year of organic material from fruit and vegetable remains. Also, this project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 35,407 (tons CO2 – eq), during the period 2019-2040.

Villarrica

Benefited entity: Illustrious Municipality of Villarrica


Region: Araucanía


Population:  44.578 inhabitants


Number of homes:  28.288


Area (km2):  1.291,1


Tons of RSD generated annually:  17.967


Disposal Site: Villarrica Landfill


Municipal Environmental Certification: Excellence

Currently, in Villarrica household solid waste is collected by trucks belonging to a private company, subcontracted by the Municipality of Villarrica, which is the owner of the Villarrica Sanitary Landfill. The operation of this sanitary landfill has been strongly criticized and currently is under a sanctioning process, making the disposal of waste in this landfill very controversial. Though there are other alternatives where it would be possible to dispose of the waste, the cost could be quadrupled, being a problem for the municipality.

Reciclo Orgánicos Program is providing technical support to the Municipality of Villarrica in obtaining permits and financing for the construction of a composting plant on a property owned by the municipality.

This composting plant will receive and treat about 6 tons per day of the organic vegetable fraction that can be assimilated as household, corresponding to food stores, commercial establishments, and street markets, a situation that will be dynamic over time.

In the medium term, the commune should explore the possibility of expanding the capacity of the composting plant, in order to treat a majority percentage of the organic waste generated by the inhabitants of the commune.

It is expected that during the period 2022-2040, this composting plant will receive and treat an average of 1,708 tons per year of organic material from fruit and vegetables remains. Also, this project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 18,929 (tons CO2 – eq), during the period 2022-2040.

Puerto Varas

Benefited entity: Illustrious Municipality of Puerto Varas


Region: Los Lagos


Population:  44.578 inhabitants


Number of homes:  17.643


Area (km2):  4.064,9


Tons of RSD generated annually: 16.286,6


Disposal Site: La Laja Landfill


Municipal Environmental Certification: Basic

Currently, the commune disposes of all its municipal waste in La Laja Landfill, which belongs to the Municipality of Puerto Varas, and it is situated 9 km away from the city of Puerto Montt and 5 km from Puerto Varas.

Reciclo Orgánicos Program provides technical support to the Municipality of Puerto Varas in obtaining permits and financing for the construction of a composting plant at La Laja Landfill.

This composting plant will receive and treat 6 tons per day of the organic vegetable fraction that can be assimilated as household, corresponding to organic waste generated by commercial establishments, street markets and community organizations that adhere to the project, a situation that will be dynamic over time.

In the medium term, the commune should explore the possibility of expanding the capacity of the composting plant, in order to treat a majority percentage of the organic waste generated by the inhabitants of the commune.

It is expected that during the period 2022-2040, this composting plant will receive and treat an average of 2,092 tons per year of organic material from fruit and vegetable waste. Also, this project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 21,873 (tons CO2 – eq), during the period 2022-2040.

Castro

Benefited entity: Illustrious Municipality of Castro


Region: Los Lagos


Population:  43.807 inhabitants


Number of homes: 18.021


Area (km2): 472,5


Tons of RSD generated annually: 26.825


Disposal Site: Punahuel Municipal Landfill


Municipal Environmental Certification: –

Currently, the commune disposes of all its municipal waste in the Punahuel Municipal Landfill, which is situated 16 kilometers north of Castro city center. The Municipality carries out actions for the minimization and recovery of solid household waste and assimilable inorganic waste, through the implementation of 4 Clean Points located in the city of Castro, for the separated collection of valuable elements.

Since 2010, the waste from green areas of the commune is collected to produce compost. The waste is transferred from urban areas to a place especially designed for that, in the municipal site. Once the process is finished, the compost is used in the green areas of the commune. Regarding to household organic waste, currently there is a pilot home composting project, which considers delivery of compost bins to 50 families, distributed in two urban units.

Reciclo Orgánicos Program provides technical support to the Municipality of Castro in obtaining permits and financing for the construction of a composting plant on the municipal property where the Punahuel Landfill is located.

This composting plant will receive and treat 5.5 tons per day of the organic material from hones, commercial establishments, and street markets.

In the medium term, the commune should explore the possibility of expanding the capacity of the composting plant, in order to treat a majority percentage of the organic waste generated by the inhabitants of the commune.

During the 2022-2040 period, it is expected that this composting plant will receive and treat on average 1,918 tons per year of organic material from fruits and vegetables waste. Also, this project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 16,154 (tons CO2-eq), during the period 2022-2040.

Quellón

Benefited entity: Illustrious Municipality of Quellón


Region: Los Lagos


Population:  27.192 inhabitants


Number of homes: 11.003


Area (km2): 3.244


Tons of RSD generated annually: 11.571


Disposal Site: Municipal Landfill of Quellón


Municipal Environmental Certification: Intermediate

Currently, the commune disposes of all its municipal waste in the Quellón Municipal Landfill, located on the way to the Yaldad sector, 5 kilometers west of the center of Quellón.

Reciclo Orgánicos Program is providing technical assistance to the Municipality of Quellón in obtaining permits and financing for the construction of a composting plant on the property where the Quellón Municipal Landfill is located.

This composting plant will receive and treat 6 tons per day of organic material from homes, commercial establishments and street markets.

In the medium term, the commune should explore the possibility of expanding the plant’s capacity to treat a majority percentage of the organic waste generated by the commune’s inhabitants.

During the 2022-2040 period, it is expected that this composting plant will receive and treat on average 1,918 tons per year of organic material from fruits and vegetables waste. Also, this project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 16,154 (tons CO2-eq), during the period 2022-2040.

Ancud

Benefited entity: Illustrious Municipality of Ancud


Region: Los Lagos


Population: 38.991 inhabitants


Number of homes: 16.959


Area (km2): 1.752,4


Tons of RSD generated annually: 20.886


Disposal Site: La Puntra Landfill (Temporary)


Municipal Environmental Certification: Basic

Currently, the commune temporarily disposes of all its municipal waste at the La Puntra disposal site, located 49 kilometers away from the center of Ancud. La Puntra has an additional capacity to receive only 12,000 m3 and is about to complete its useful life, a situation that has highlighted the need to have a comprehensive treatment of waste to minimize final disposal.

In 2019, the Municipality was awarded financing for the construction of a storage shed for recycling, through the Neighborhood Improvement Program. Additionally, during that same year, it was awarded financing for the implementation of the “Ancud composta” pilot project, through the Recycling Fund of the Ministry of the Environment.

This project seeks to implement the separation of waste at the source and composting as part of the treatment of waste for 342 families and 42 urban and rural schools in the commune. However, this initiative must be complemented to achieve coverage of a majority percentage of the homes in the commune.

Reciclo Orgánicos Program is providing technical assistance to the Municipality of Ancud in obtaining permits and financing for the construction of a composting plant in Chacao, where the municipal landfill is currently located.

This composting plant will receive and treat 5.5 tons per day of organic material from homes, commercial establishments and street markets.

In the medium term, the commune should explore the possibility of expanding the plant’s capacity to treat a majority percentage of the organic waste generated by the commune’s inhabitants.

During the 2022-2040 period, it is expected that this composting plant will receive and treat on average 1,918 tons per year of organic material from fruits and vegetables waste. Also, this project will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 16,154 (tons CO2-eq), during the period 2022-2040.